1) NAD+ -NADH is a ________ reaction and FADH2-FAD is a _______ reaction.

1) NAD+ ->NADH is a ________ reaction and FADH2->FAD is a _______ reaction. 

A) Endergonic, Exergonic B) Exergonic, Endergonic C) Reduction, Oxidation D) Oxidation, Reduction 

E) Oxidation, Oxidation F) Reduction, Reduction G) 2 of the above 

2) What are the byproducts of the Krebs cycle per glucose molecule oxidized?

C) 6 NADH, 2 GTP, 2 FADH2, 4 CO2 

A) 3 NADH, 1 GTP, 1 FADH2, 2 CO2 D) 6 NADH, 2 GTP, 2 FADH2 B) 3 NADH, 1 GTP, 1 FADH2 

For the next 2 questions consider the following paragraph: 

Phil Kessel is conducting a Biology experiment. He has a solution of a sugar water of a concentration of 7 grams per 100mL. He then drops in a packet of 75% concentrated sugar water, with a semipermeable membrane to water. 

3) With respect to the sugar packet, the sugar water is a ________ A) Hypertonic solution C) Isometric solution B) Hypotonic solution D) Isotonic solution 

4) What will be the result to the sugar packet? 

A) Swell and burst

B) Shrink and shrivel

C) Wont change since the semipermeable membrane is impermeable to sugar D) None of the above 

5) A reaction has a ΔG of +8 kcal/mol, what is the new ΔG with double the enzyme? 

A) +8 kcal/mol C) +16 kcal/mol

B) +4 kcal/mol D) None of the above 

6) ATP Synthase on the inner mitochondrial membrane: 

A) Requires ATP hydrolysis to transport ions

B) Is a symport protein

C) Requires proton transport to synthesize ATP 

D) Produces ATP for use in the Calvin cycle 

7) In the presence of excess substrate, enzymes: A) Become competitively inhibited

B) Reach saturation

C) Would never reach saturation 

D) Would have an ever increasing rate of reaction 

8) Chymotrypsin is a type of:

A) Protease C) Hydrogenase B) Desaturase D) Isomerase 

9) Which enzyme prevents helicase from tangling the DNA molecule? 

A) Topoisomerase C) DNA polymerase III B) SSBs D) Ligase 

10) On either side of an origin of replication you can find: 

A) 2 leading strands B) 2 lagging strands C) 1 leading strand 

D) 1 lagging strand G) C and D E) A and B

F) B and D 

11) Which amino acid subtypes are necessary for the production of an aquaporin? 

A) Charged B) Polar 

C) Non-polar D) Aromatic

E) A, B, C

F) All of the above

12) G proteins:

A) Are activated by GDP

B) Travel between a G protein coupled receptor and Adenylyl cyclase 

C) Require cAMP to function

D) Produce cAMP

E) None of the above

13) PKA is a secondary messenger that effects: A) Gene transcription

B) Negative feedback mechanisms

C) Primary messenger function 

D) Phosphodiesterase

14) Which of the following do NOT affect enzyme activity? 

A) pH

B) Temperature C) Salinity 

D) Free Energy

E) All affect enzyme activity

15) An endergonic reaction: 

A) has +delta G

B) has – delta G 

C) is anabolic D) is catabolic 

E) both A and C F) both B and D 

16) Exocytosis is a process by which cells: 

A) Pass substances out of the cell via vesicles

B) Pass substances out of the cell via osmosis

C) Bring in substances from the environment

D) Use receptors to signal vesicle formation

E) Release substances into the extracellular fluid by opening a pore 

17) Carrier proteins can carry molecules against 

A) True

B) False

C) Only if the protein is an antiport 

D) Carrier proteins only produce a concentration gradient 

18) Photosystem I

A) Is in the thylakoid lumen B) Is also called P680 

C) Boosts electrons’ energy

D) Uses energy from electrons

19) Where in photosynthesis is the ETC? A) The inner mitochondrial membrane B) The thylakoid membrane 

C) The stroma

D) the Stomata

20) Cellular Respiration is: A) – delta G and exergonic B) anabolic

C) Breaks up molecules D) 2 of the above ( which ones) D All of the above

21) Which Steps in cellular respiration use oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP? A) Glycolysis C) Kreb’s cycle

B) Pyruvate oxidation D) None of the above (which one)

22) What are the (1)products and (2)reactants in photosynthesis? 

  1. A) 1 = O2, 2 = CO2 
  2. B) 1 = glucose, 2 = H2O 
  3. C) 1 = H2O & CO2, 2 = O2 & glucose 
  4. D) 1 = glucose & O2, 2 = H2O & CO2

23) Krebs cycle is to Calvin cycle as glycolysis is to _____

A. Chemiosmosis C. Oxidative phosphorylation B. Pyruvate oxidation D. None of the above (what is the answer)

24) What is the correct order for G protein signal transduction?

A) Ligand + G protein coupled receptor->Activated G protein->active adenylyl cyclase->ATP converted to cAMP->PKA activation

B) First messenger + G protein coupled receptor->active G protein->DAG and IP3 made->Ca2+ released->active PKA

C) Neither of the above

D) A and B are correct 

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