Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model

SOC 312 Week 1 DQ 1 Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model

Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model. Your text uses Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model to explain how children’s development is affected by different groups within their world. Using this theory, we can understand how children are socialized both intentionally and unintentionally. You must understand how this theory applies to your own upbringing as well as a young child’s upbringing in order to truly comprehend the concept. After reading the text and the “Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory” article, use your understanding of this theory to respond to the questions below.

Using Bronbenbrenner’s ecological model, respond to the following questions:

a. How did the microsystem that you grew up in differ from your parents’ or grandparents’ microsystems? Do you think this is a detrimental or an affirmative change to society as a whole?

b. How do you think technology, specifically social media, influences a child’s mesosystems?


SOC 312 Week 1 DQ 2 Agents of Socialization

Agents of Socialization. Agents of socialization include parents, siblings, extended family, community, culture, economic environment, religion, child care, school, teachers, peers, formal organizations, sports, mass media, and technology. In an ideal world, these agents would complement one another in order to best influence a child’s development. Choose three of the above agents and discuss how these agents can have both a positive and negative influence on a child’s development. Include examples from your own experience and share ways that you believe the agents of socialization could be improved.


SOC 312 Week 1 Journal Socialization

Socialization. If you could change any of the major agents of socialization in your own upbringing, what would you change and why? Do you think this change would have altered the course of your life? If so, why? If not, why not?


SOC 312 Week 1 Quiz

1.   Technology has not had a big impact on children growing up today.


2.   During WWII, women were still viewed in their “traditional” roles such as teachers, nurses, and seamstresses.


3.   _________is defined as a learning theory that emphasizes the predictable role of environment in causing observable behavior.


4.   Which of the following is an example of positive punishment?


5.   Self Esteem is defined as the confidence in one’s abilities or characteristics required to succeed in a given task.


6.   As a result of the catastrophe in 2001, children are growing up in a different world today.


7.   According to America’s Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, which of the following indicators looks at family structure and children’s living arrangements, births to unmarried woman, child care, children of at least one foreign-born parent, language spoken at home and difficulty speaking English, adolescent births, and child maltreatment?


8.   Impacts of social policies represent the __________________ in Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model.


9.   Peers are part of the __________________ in Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model.


10. Culture is part of the __________________ in Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model.


SOC 312 Week 2 DQ 1 The Theory of Mind

The Theory of Mind. Watch the following short film, theory of, which demonstrates the theory of mind using a juice box experiment.

At around four years of age, a fundamental change occurs in children’s understanding of others’ behaviors or what is also called theory of mind. Using your knowledge from our readings, watch the video to determine which stage both Jacob and Patrick are currently in respectively.

Discuss both Jacob’s and Patrick’s reaction to the “mean monkey.” What stage would Erickson say each child is in? How do these different stages influence their values and attitudes? Do you think it is possible for a child over the age of three to have trouble understanding that his or her beliefs can be false? Explain your reasoning


SOC 312 Week 2 DQ 2 Self-Regulation

Self-Regulation. Regardless of a child’s unique qualities, one thing remains the same; to improve learning and behavior, children must develop strong self-regulation skills. Read the article from the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC), “Developing Young Children’s Self-Regulation Through Everyday Experiences.”

The marshmallow experiment is a famous test conducted by Walter Mischel at Stanford University and discussed by Daniel Goleman in his popular work. In the 1960s, a group of four-year-olds were given a marshmallow and promised another only if they could wait 20 minutes before eating the first one. Some children could wait and others could not. The researchers then followed the progress of each child into adolescence, and demonstrated that those with the ability to wait were better adjusted and more dependable (determined via surveys of their parents and teachers), and scored an average of 210 points higher on the Scholastic Aptitude Test. Watch the video, The Marshmallow Test.

Reflect on the information in the NAEYC article, the video, and your text and explain how toddlers with better self-regulation skills are less likely to demonstrate behavior problems in preschool. Explain why these self-regulation skills are so important and how you will promote the learning of self-regulation. How will you deliberately teach self-regulation as part of everyday experience? Share an example of your own self-regulation skills that you can model for others.


SOC 312 Week 2 Journal Gender Issues

Gender Issues. Consider the anecdote of “Elena” in your text book. Obviously, Elena’s mother prefers that her daughter participates in more feminine activities. What is your opinion? Do you think that young children should be guided toward gender specific toys? Why or why not?


SOC 312 Week 2 Influence of Peers

Influence of Peers. The influence of peers during childhood can have a long-lasting effect on a person throughout his or her life. Describe at least three different ways in which teachers and/or parents can intervene to help improve a child’s social skills and relationship with peers. (Keep in mind that it is the adult’s responsibility to enhance a relationship with peers, rather than be the relationship.)

Use the information from your text to complete a graphic organizer that provides a succinct summary of your suggestions for parents/educators. In addition, give a short explanation of why these suggestions will encourage positive peer relationships. You must use at least two scholarly sources other than the textbook and required readings to support your suggestions.

You may download the Inspiration9 30-Day Trial or use an application of your own to create a graphic organizer. Be sure to upload all necessary links, images, and/or text onto a Word document. Instructions for downloading Inspiration9 and exporting to Word can be found in the online course.


Your creation must be one page using the graphic organizer of your choice. In addition, you must create a title page and reference page formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.


SOC 312 Week 2 Quiz

1.   Separation anxiety is characterized by a sense of apprehensiveness towards strange people or places.


2.   A value is defined as an individual’s positive or negative response to people, objects, places, or situations.


3.   Regardless of environment, imprint of biology, parents, and culture, every infant is born with a personality or temperament that guides and influences their approach to the world.


4.   Effortful control deals with self-regulation in relation to temperament.


5.   Temperament impacts how children react to events in their environment.


6.   ____________ is an inborn motive to explore, understand, and control one’s environment.


7.   ___________________ helping involves providing unrewarded assistance with a goal in mind.


8.   The ________________ contribution refers to social influences on gender development.


9.   Parenting is an example of _________________ factors that influence the development of self-regulation.


10. Which stage of attachment is defined as an infant typically showing a definite preference for interaction and comforting from a familiar caregiver, usually the child’s mother, father, or other frequent caregiver?


SOC 312 Week 3 DQ 1 Motivators

Motivators. Imagine that you are a preschool teacher. Describe a situation in which you would use an extrinsic reward to motivate a preschooler. Discuss how these motivators could result in learned helplessness. Now, give examples and explain how you can lead the same child to achieve intrinsic motivation by becoming his or her own locus of control. Keep in mind that your end goal is for the child to be intrinsically motivated so that he or she has ownership of the behavior.


SOC 312 Week 3 DQ 2 Control

Control. The role of the microsystem in shaping children’s effortful control is important and parents play a critical role. After reading the text and viewing the “Life at 3: Bad Behavior” video, address the following:

a. What would you recommend to a parent who asks you what he or she can do to promote his or her preschool child’s self-regulation skills?

b. Now turning to the mesosystem, identify examples of influences on the child’s effortful control you can share with the parent.

c. Provide examples of influences on children’s effortful control that you have observed in your own family and other families who are close to you.


SOC 312 Week 3 Developmentally Appropriate Teaching Strategies

Developmentally Appropriate Teaching Strategies. Read the articles “10 Effective DAP Teaching Strategies” and “Culturally Responsive Classroom Strategies.” In addition, view the Culture in the Classroom website and the Keynote by Lisa Delpit (Teaching Tolerance) video

After reviewing the required resources, identify and discuss three challenges involved with ensuring that teaching strategies are appropriate for culturally diverse children. Then, discuss these cultural challenges in the classroom using one sociological perspective (i.e., functionalism, conflict theory, symbolic interactionism, etc.) and another relevant perspective, such as Piaget’s preoperational stage of development. Finally, identify and discuss how the challenges related to differences in culture may be addressed by a teacher in a way that increases the child’s cognitive advancement and academic success.

You must use at least two scholarly sources other than the textbook and required resources for this assignment. The paper must include a summary of each of the challenges identified and each of the remedies to those challenges. In addition, you must include an explanation of the cultural challenges in the classroom using one of the sociological perspectives and Piaget’s theory of the preoperational stage of cognitive development.


SOC 312 Week 3 Quiz

1.   Theory of Mind has been shown to be linked to values.


2.   Intrinsic motivation is defined as doing an activity to attain some separate outcome to get a reward or to avoid punishment.


3.   Maya’s parents promised to buy her a new bicycle if she helped with the household chores. She has been helping her parents by picking up her toys and putting her clothes in the hamper. Maya’s behavior is being driven by ___________.


4.   A child’s tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation while neglecting others.


5.   Once gender schema is formed, children are expected to act in ways that conform to traditional gender roles.


6.   A term coined by Piaget to mean the ability to use mental representations such as words, numbers, or images to attach meaning.


7.   Ryan’s parents are teaching him to not interrupt others when they are speaking. This task will require _______________.


8.   Another name for children’s internalized values and codes of conduct is __________________.


9.   Gender schema relates to the notion of how children develop gender _____________________.


10. When children play alongside their peers but do not directly interact with them, this behavior is illustrative of __________________ play.


SOC 312 Week 4 DQ 1 Cultural and Linguistic Differences

Cultural and Linguistic Differences. Listen to the Cultural and Linguistic Differences podcast from The IRIS Center, or read the transcript. Consider what Donna Ford has to say about prejudice and stereotyping. Then, read the “Culture-Based Education and Its Relationship to Student Outcomes” article.

Discuss how educators can positively influence a school-age child to not hold biases or prejudices against others. Give an example of how a teacher can create a community of learners who support one another by fostering positive attitudes. Give an example of how an educator could teach his or her students the importance of acceptance. Your post must address the children in the concrete operational stage.


SOC 312 Week 4 DQ 2 Bullying

Bullying. Bullying is a prevalent issue during middle childhood. Watch The Power of One – School Video Sample. Choose one of the situations presented: Diego, Timmy, or Kendra Briefly describe the situation. Offer suggestions that can be put into place by the teacher, school, and the parents (at least one for each). Use the following sources to support your response:

a. Bullies: What is Bullying

b. Stopbullying

You must address what should be said to the child who is targeted and to the child exhibiting the bullying behavior. You must include what should not be said as well. Include at least one suggestion to be used in the classroom and one suggestion that can be reinforced at home.



SOC 312 Week 4 Journal Private or Public Bully

Private or Public Bully. Think about bullying and young children. Do you think that bullying is more apt to happen in a public school setting or a private school setting? Do you think the setting has any effect on bullying, or is it primarily the child’s age? Reflect on a bullying incident that you are aware of. The incident can include you as the victim, the bully, or a bystander. This may even be an incident that was reported in the news of which you are aware. Alternatively, you may share an incident that occurred with your own child or a child who is close to you. How could the situation have been changed or avoided?


SOC 312 Week 4 Bullying…Change

Bullying…Change. Read the following essay, written by Antonio, a fourth-grade student.

The Bully in the Mirror

Antonio, 4th Grade

Mirror Mirror on the wall why must I be the

Bully that has to fall. I beat on kids around the school

The mirror told me it wasn’t cool. The mirror told me to change.

My ways I have beat up kids all by days. I have no friends.

It’s just not right. The mirror said cause you like to fight.

I am a bully how could this be. The mirror is starting to

Change me. Reflections are now flashing back to me.

Someone plant the seed inside of me. Now the mirror has

shown me poor. I’ll change my ways and start

new days the bully is no more part of me.

Any bully can change

Imagine that you are Antonio’s teacher. Antonio obviously wants to make a change. As a fourth grader, it is almost impossible to do this alone. Therefore, he has handed this writing piece to you, his teacher. Understanding that this transformation involves far more than you and Antonio, you will devise a plan to help him change his history and be a good person.

First, read the Kenny (2007) article and discuss how Antonio’s “looking glass self” has been influenced by the agents of socialization. Be sure to explain how this looking glass self is related to his “answerability” and what role that has in his desire to change his behavior.

Next, devise a game plan for Antonio’s change:

a. Share one lesson or activity that can be completed with the whole class. The lesson or activity should focus on the importance of awareness and bully prevention. Describe the lesson or activity and how it will benefit the class as a whole.

b. List one idea showing how the class can support Antonio’s change. Explain how you would help your students support their former tormentor.

c. List one strategy that you can help Antonio implement in order for him to stay on the right path (e.g., literature, a check list, or a change in routine).

d. Provide one suggestion you would share with Antonio’s parents, so that this change in behavior is a true partnership between you (the teacher), the child, and the parents.

Use the information from your text and the Pacer’s National Bullying Prevention Center website to create your plan. You must include two scholarly sources in addition to the two given.


SOC 312 Week 4 Quiz

1.    Question : Concrete operations is defined as stage in which children can use mental operations to solve concrete or actual problems.

Student Answer:


2.    Question: Family plays a small role in the development of a school-aged child’s self-esteem.

Student Answer:


3.    Question: Children who have secure relationships with their parents are likely to make friends more easily at school.


4.    Question: Babak is ten years old, and most of his friends are girls. Babak’s choice of friends would tend to make him less popular with his male peers.


5.    Question: Collaboration has little impact on a child’s ability to solve problems.


6.    Question: Children generally describe females in action-related terms, and males in appearance-related terms.


7.    Question : Lee is playing with blocks at school. He is dividing them up based on their color. This is an example of_______.


8.    Question : According to Bronfenbrenner, children’s _____________ have a great impact on their development.


9.   Question : Sonja loves to wear her pink tutu every day. She refuses to take it off, even at bed or when it is snowing. Sonja is demonstrating what?


10. Question : Gender differences in school-aged children’s _________ have been well documented.



SOC 312 Week 5 DQ 1 Technology

Technology. Your text shares many negative effects of technology and the media’s influence on children. Regardless, technology is increasing rapidly and is only becoming a larger portion of our children’s lives. After reading “Mass Media, Television, and Children’s Socialization,” choose an age level (toddler, preschool, or elementary age) upon which to focus in this discussion. Then, list three positive examples of how technology has enhanced socialization for children in that age group. Give two additional examples of how parents/educators can use technology to further enhance a child’s socialization.


SOC 312 Week 5 DQ 2 Nonparental Care

Nonparental Care. Choose one of the three nonparental care choices: nannies, center-based, or family-based care. Imagine that you are trying to sell your chosen method of care to a prospective client who is a parent of a toddler. Share the advantages of your childcare setting so that the parent chooses your method to care for their child. Address the following in your post: socialization, cost, turnover, and any other points that you believe are necessary to sell your childcare option.


SOC 312 Week 5 Journal Self-Assessment

Self-Assessment. Reflect on your coursework so far. Which assignment was the most engaging? Why? Have you learned anything new? How will you use your new knowledge? Evaluate your work so far. Which assignments and/or activities did you excel in? What could you have improved?

Journal response options:

a. Written reflection journal

b. Jing reflection with visuals

c. Peer dialogue reflection (where you discuss the questions above with a peer or colleague and write a reflection based on your discussion).


SOC 312 Week 5 Quiz

1.   Young people use music to help regulate and express their feelings.


2.   Approximately 30 percent of four month olds in the United States watch some form of television on a regular basis.

3.   Children who are exposed to childcare centers for more hours and at an earlier age are more likely to demonstrate behavioral problems in kindergarten.

4.   About ___ percent of three month olds in the United States regularly watch TV, videos, or DVDs, and that number only rises as the children get older.


5.   Enrollment in universal prekindergarten programs is voluntary.


6.   The social networks of low-income parents are more likely to include professionals like teachers compared to middle-income parents.


7.   ______ are different than printed media, audio media, and screen media because it enables the active participation.


8.   A large number of education apps for smart phones target children between the ages of ____________.


9.   Which of the following is not discussed as a form of nonparental child care?


10. A focus on interdependence between group members is reflective of the _________________ cultural framework.


SOC 312 Week 5 Final Project

Focus of the Final Project

Your good friends have just adopted a four-year-old child. At this point, the only socialization decision they have made is that the child is going to preschool. Imagine that you are an expert in your chosen field. Your friends have come to you for advice and to devise a plan to raise their child. They ask you to be frank with them and give them specific examples to support your opinions. They are determined to raise this child to the best of their ability. Since they are new parents, they need advice on everything!

The summative assignment is to develop a user-friendly PowerPoint handbook of suggestions. The handbook will demonstrate your understanding of the material by applying the major topics discussed in the course to a real situation.

Writing the PowerPoint Presentation of the Final Project

1. Summarize Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model and describe why it is important for them to be aware of this theory (one to two slides).

2. Suggest and explain a parenting style/philosophy (authoritarian, authoritative, or permissive) that you believe will be most beneficial for the child and the family (one to two slides).

3. Explain which childcare (nanny, center-based, or family-based care) option (before/during/after preschool) you think is best for the child and why (one to two slides). Be sure to include discussion of the social factors that influence the likelihood of the family selecting a particular form of childcare.

4. Share specific suggestions, including at least two to implement safe technology use in the home. Explain how the media can (both positively and negatively) influence the child (one to two slides).

5. Discuss the importance of culture and ethnicity in the development of the self-concept. Share your ideas of ways that the new parents can create opportunities for the child to learn about his or her culture (one to two slides).

6. Describe at least two researched methods to increase the child’s self-esteem and positive attitude (one to two slides).

7. Differentiate between the importance of socialization that occurs in the home and at school. Explain the importance of each venue as a positive haven for the child (one to two slides).

8. Explain the importance of the teacher’s role in the child’s life. Give examples of how the school and the teacher will affect the child’s socialization (one to two slides).

9. Share the importance of positive peer interactions. Give two examples for the parents to implement at home to foster friendships (one to two slides).

The PowerPoint presentation must include a minimum of 15 slides (not including the title slide and reference slide). Students are encouraged to creatively address the material and include graphics, visuals, charts, graphs, and/or sound. Slides should be designed to clearly and concisely address the material. The PowerPoint presentation must be formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Include a title slide, reference slide, and citations within the slides when appropriate. Students must use at least five scholarly sources and the course text.

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