Catherine Owens

Edith Martinez

ThursdayJun 22 at 8:17pm

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When an infant is born their lungs are full of amniotic fluid do to no oxygen in the mother’s womb. Once the infant is born it is vital that the lungs start functioning as it needs to breath oxygen now to stay alive. There are adrenal glands that send signals to the brain which then causes it to shock the body and start breathing. The lungs then begin to pump air. The first hour after birth is also critical as all the infant’s organs are learning and adjusting to living in the outside world. The digestive system also begins to function and develop. Within a few days, the infant rids itself of the digestive amniotic fluid which is corrosive in the event of it getting to the infant’s lungs. The immune system is not yet developed and the infant is not able to fight off bacteria, however they use their mother’s milk which contains antibodies to fight the bacteria for them. At four weeks, the infant puts on some weight and their hearing, smelling and touching senses begin to function more when exposed to stimuli. The hearing sense develops by hearing new sounds, voices and things. The only sense that is the most underdeveloped is the vision. According to According to National Geographic (2011), the infant is only able to see in black and white for the first two months. At 4 months, the infant is able to see and recognize their mother’s face. By eight months it is considered for the child to have 20/20 vision. At eight months, all of their senses are functioning and they begin to explore the world for themselves not just based on what stimuli they are exposed to. They begin exploring with their sense of touch with their hands, mouth, and face which have the most sensory receptors. Gross motor skills develop between two to three months of age. The baby begins to develop their muscle control and can now roll over on their own. According to Mossler & Ziegler, “Interestingly, although infancy isoften associated with a crawling baby, it is not unusual for infants to skip the crawling stage and move rightinto cruising (walking while holding on to furniture) and then walking. Interestingly, although infancy is oftenassociated with a crawling baby, it is not unusual for infants to skip the crawling stage and move right intocruising (walking while holding on to furniture) and then walking” (Mossler & Zeigler, 2016, pp.2).

I would suggest to new parents to ensure that they are providing stimuli to the child in order to help them develop their senses. If a parent doesn’t hold their child much or interact with the child it will be difficult for the child’s brain to produce synapses which help the child develop. I would also suggest that when pregnant it is acceptable and in fact recommended to exercise and do light weight training.

Mossler, R. A., & Ziegler, M. (2016). Understanding development: A lifespan perspective. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

National Geographic. (2011b, Apr 29). Inside the living body, video 2 of 9 [Video file]. Retrieved from: (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Keina Coleman

ThursdayJun 22 at 2:52pm

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Early Childhood Physical Development

Sensory system development occurs throughout one’s lifespan. It begins at birth and continuously thrives into one’s adulthood. The development of the senses begins in the first month of a child’s life. (Mossler & Ziegler, 2016). The nervous system has a sensory system that is responsible for how one responds to what they see, hear, taste, smell, and touch. Development of the sensory system begins in an infant’s first month of life. The infant’s auditory, visual, and olfactory systems are developed during this period. An infant’s perception of the world is attained through the process of habituation, the diminishing of the infant’s response to stimuli (Mossler & Ziegler, 2016.)  The process of habituation is used to assess an infant’s perceptual and sensory aptitudes.

             Of the 5 senses, sight is the least developed sense. Infants are believed to be nearsighted at birth and may begin to see things in color at the age of 4 months (Shriner & Shriner, 2014).  Neonates begin to hear sounds while in their mother’s womb. Some fetus’ can hear and respond to sounds coming from the outside of their mother’s womb. Infants can also distinguish between pleasant and unpleasant odors. Of the 5 senses, the touch is the most developed sense (Shriner & Shriner, 2014).  The touch provides an infant with a sense of comfort and closeness to its caregiver. All of these senses impact a child’s perception of the world. The sensory system assists children in learning. The sensory system assists children in determining how things feel, look, taste, and helps them to distinguish sounds.

 Environmental factors play an important role in a child’s development and how they perceive the world. Psychologist Albert Bandura’s social learning theory assumes that an individual’s behavior is learned by observing others (Fenestra, 2013). Parents should ensure that they create a safe and clean social environment for their child. I would suggest that parents create an environment that is conducive to learning and encourage them to keep their child’s scheduled medical appointments and to assess their child’s developmental milestones. I also would encourage parents to talk, to read, and to sing to their child. By doing this, parents will help their child develop listening and language skills.


Freenstra, J.  (2013). Social psychology. Bridgepoint Education: San Diego, CA.

Mossler, R. A., & Ziegler, M. (2016). Understanding development: A lifespan perspective. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

Shriner, B and Shriner M. (2014). Essentials of Lifespan Development. A topical Perspective. Bridgepoint Education

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